# Rguroo Quick Guide

This quick guide will help get you started in Rguroo by providing step-by-step instructions for common analyses. Within this guide are links that will take you to relevant chapters/videos of our comprehensive User's Guide and our Video Tutorial Library .

## Getting Data into Rguroo

### Import a File

1. Open the Data toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Data Import dropdown menu and choose the Data Frame option.

2. Choose a file or enter a URL. Adjust the other options appropriately.

### Create New Data Frame

1. Open the Data toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Data Import dropdown menu and choose the Create New Data Frame option.

3. Give your new data frame a name and select Save As….

### Importing Data from Rguroo's Data Repository

1. Open the Data toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Data Import dropdown menu and choose the Repository option.

2. If you know the name of the repository you are looking for, enter the name of the repository in the Search Repository… field.

3. Select your desired repository. A list of all datasets within the selected repository will appear in the lower panel.

4. Highlight your desired dataset and select Import.

## Data Functions

### Subsetting Rows & Columns

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Data toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Functions dropdown menu and choose the Subset option.

3. Select a Dataset.

4. To subset Rows: select Sequence and/or Logical Expression. If using multiple criteria to subset rows, the Set Calculator is required.

5. To subset Columns: select Select Columns and use the arrows or drag-and-drop to place the desired variables in the right column.

6. Select the preview icon .

### Sorting

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Data toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Functions dropdown menu and choose the Sort option.

3. Select a Dataset and use the green plus button to add a sorting criterion, which includes a variable and a choice of ascending/descending.

4. Select the preview icon .

### Summary Statistics

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Data toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Functions dropdown menu and choose the Summary Statistic option.

3. Select a Dataset and Numerical variable. Using the checkboxes, select the statistics desired.

4. Select the preview icon . Choose "All Observations".

## Plots

### Bar Plot

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Plots toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Create Plot dropdown menu and choose the Barplot option.

3. Select a Dataset. To create a barplot with categories across the x-axis, open the Categorical tab.

4. Select a Factor variable, adjust the other options appropriately, and add a title.

5. Select the preview icon .

### Box Plot

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Plots toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Create Plot dropdown menu and choose the Boxplot option.

3. Select a Dataset, Numerical variable, and Factor variable. Adjust the other options appropriately and add a title.

4. Select the preview icon .

### Bubble Plot

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Plots toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Create Plot dropdown menu and choose the Bubbleplot option.

3. Select a Dataset, Predictor (x) variable, Response (y) variable, and a Bubble Size variable.

4. Select the preview icon .

### Dot Plot

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'Titanic' dataset found in the 'R datasets' repository.

2. Open the Plots toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Create Plot dropdown menu and choose the Dotplot option.

3. Select a Dataset and Numerical variable. Adjust the other options appropriately and add a title.

4. Select the preview icon .

### Histogram

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Plots toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Create Plot dropdown menu and choose the Histogram option.

3. Select a Dataset and Variable. Adjust the other options appropriately and add a title.

4. Select the preview icon .

### Line Graph

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'AirPassengers' dataset found in the 'R datasets' repository.

2. Open the Plots toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Create Plot dropdown menu and choose the Scatterplot option.

3. Select a Dataset, Predictor Variable, and Response Variable. Adjust the other options appropriately and add a title.

4. Check the Line checkbox found in the Superimpose section.

5. Select the preview icon .

### Pie Chart

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Plots toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Create Plot dropdown menu and choose the Piechart option.

3. Select a Dataset and Factor variable. Adjust the other options appropriately and add a title.

4. Select the preview icon .

### Scatterplot

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'AirPassengers' dataset found in the 'R datasets' repository.

2. Open the Plots toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Create Plot dropdown menu and choose the Scatterplot option.

3. Select a Dataset, Predictor Variable, and Response Variable. Adjust the other options appropriately and add a title.

4. Select the preview icon .

### Stem and Leaf Plot

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Plots toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Create Plot dropdown menu and choose the Stem and Leaf option.

3. Select a Dataset and Variable. Adjust the other options appropriately and add a title.

4. Select the preview icon .

### Normal Probability Plot

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Mean Inference and then select the One & Two Population option.

3. Select a Dataset and Variable 1 and check the Normal Probability Plot checkbox.

4. Select the preview icon .

## Probabilty Calculations

### Binomial Distribution (cdf)

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Probability dropdown menu and choose the Probability Calculator then select the Discrete option.

2. Select the option Values ⇒ Probability.

3. Select Binomial as the Distribution, and enter the Number of Trials and Probability of Success.

4. Select the option Below from the dropdown menu, then type the Number of Successes in the text field.

5. Adjust the other options appropriately, including selecting the Graph option and editing the Calculation Name, if desired.

6. Select the preview icon .

### Binomial Distribution (pdf)

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Probability dropdown menu and choose the Probability Calculator then select the Discrete option.

2. Select the option Values ⇒ Probability.

3. Select Binomial as the Distribution, and enter the Number of Trials and Probability of Success.

4. Select the option Equal from the dropdown menu, then type the Number of Successes in the text field.

5. Adjust the other options appropriately, including selecting the Graph option and editing the Calculation Name, if desired.

6. Select the preview icon .

### Poisson Distribution (cdf)

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Probability dropdown menu and choose the Probability Calculator then select the Discrete option.

2. Select the option Values ⇒ Probability.

3. Select Poisson as the Distribution, and enter a Mean (lambda) value.

4. Select the option Below from the dropdown menu, then type the Number of Successes in the text field.

5. Adjust the other options appropriately, including selecting the Graph option and editing the Calculation Name, if desired.

6. Select the preview icon .

### Poisson Distribution (pdf)

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Probability dropdown menu and choose the Probability Calculator then select the Discrete option.

2. Select the option Values ⇒ Probability.

3. Select Poisson as the Distribution, and enter a Mean (lambda) value.

4. Select the option Equal from the dropdown menu, then type the Number of Successes in the text field.

5. Adjust the other options appropriately, including selecting the Graph option and editing the Calculation Name, if desired.

6. Select the preview icon .

### Hypergeometric Distribution (pdf)

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Select the Probability dropdown menu and choose the Probability Calculator then select the Discrete option.

2. Select the option Values ⇒ Probability.

3. Select Hypergeometric as the Distribution, and enter values for Success, Failures, and Draws.

4. Select the option Equal from the dropdown menu. Then type the Number of Successes in the text field to the right.

5. Adjust the other options appropriately, including selecting the Graph option and editing the Calculation Name, if desired.

6. Select the preview icon .

### F-Distribution Probability (cdf)

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Probability dropdown menu and choose the Probability Calculator then select the Continuous option.

2. Select the option Values => Probability.

3. Select F as the Distribution, and enter the Num. DF and Denom. DF.

4. Select the option Below from the dropdown menu, then type the desired value in the text field.

5. Adjust the other options appropriately, including selecting the Graph option and editing the Calculation Name, if desired.

6. Select the preview icon . Choose "All Observations".

### Chi-Square Distribution (cdf)

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Probability dropdown menu and choose the Probability Calculator, then select the Continuous option.

2. Select the option Values ⇒ Probability.

3. Select Chi-Square as the Distribution and enter the Degrees of Freedom (DF). Leave the other parameters at default values.

4. Select the option Below from the dropdown menu, then type the desired value in the text field.

5. Adjust the other options appropriately, including selecting the Graph option and editing the Calculation Name, if desired.

6. Select the preview icon .

### Chi-Square Distribution: Upper Tail (cdf)

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Probability dropdown menu and choose the Probability Calculator then select the Continuous option.

2. Select the option Values ⇒ Probability.

3. Select Chi-Square as the Distribution, and enter the Degrees of Freedom (DF). Leave other parameters at default values.

4. Select the option Above from the dropdown menu, then type the desired value in the text field.

5. Adjust the other options appropriately, including selecting the Graph option and editing the Calculation Name, if desired.

6. Select the preview icon .

### Chi-Square Distribution: Critical Value (inverse cdf)

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Probability dropdown menu and choose the Probability Calculator then select the Continuous option.

2. Select the option Probability ⇒ Values.

3. Select Chi-Square as the Distribution, and enter the Degrees of Freedom (DF). Leave other parameters at default values.

4. Select the option Upper Tail from the dropdown menu, then type the desired probability in the text field.

5. Adjust the other options appropriately, including selecting the Graph option and editing the Calculation Name, if desired.

6. Select the preview icon .

### Normal Distribution (cdf)

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Select the Probability dropdown menu and choose the Probability Calculator then select the Continuous option.

2. Select the option Values ⇒ Probability.

3. Select Normal as the Distribution, and enter the Mean and Standard Deviation.

4. Select the option Below from the dropdown menu, then type the value in the text field.

5. Adjust the other options appropriately, including selecting the Graph option and editing the Calculation Name, if desired.

6. Select the preview icon .

### Normal Distribution (inverse cdf)

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Select the Probability dropdown menu and choose the Probability Calculator then select the Continuous option.

2. Select the option Probability ⇒ Values.

3. Select Normal as the Distribution, and enter the Mean and Standard Deviation.

4. Select the option Lower Tail from the dropdown menu, then type the desired area in the text field.

5. Adjust the other options appropriately, including selecting the Graph option and editing the Calculation Name, if desired.

6. Select the preview icon .

### t-Distribution (cdf)

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Probability dropdown menu and choose the Probability Calculator then select the Continuous option.

2. Select the option Values ⇒ Probability.

3. Select Student t as the Distribution, and enter the Degrees of Freedom (DF). Leave other parameters at default values.

4. Select the option Below from the dropdown menu, then type the desired value in the text field.

5. Adjust the other options appropriately, including selecting the Graph option and editing the Calculation Name, if desired.

6. Select the preview icon .

### t-Distribution (inverse cdf)

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Probability dropdown menu and choose the Probability Calculator then select the Continuous option.

2. Select Student t as the Distribution, and enter the Degrees of Freedom.

3. Select the option Probability => Values.

4. Select the option Lower Tail from the dropdown menu, then type the desired Area in the text field.

5. Adjust the other options appropriately, including selecting the Graph option and editing the Calculation Name, if desired.

6. Select the preview icon .

## Sampling from a Distribution

1. Open the Probability-Simulation toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Probability dropdown menu and choose Random Generator.

2. Select Uniform as the Distribution, and enter the Min (a) and Max (b) and Sample Size. Adjust the other options appropriately.

3. Select the preview icon .

## ANOVA

### One-Way ANOVA

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'PlantGrowthX' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the ANOVA option.

3. Select a Dataset and Response variable.

4. Open the one-way tab and select a Factor variable and set a Significance Level.

5. Select the preview icon .

### Two-Way ANOVA

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'PlantGrowthX' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the ANOVA option.

3. Select a Dataset and Response variable.

4. Open the two-way tab and select Factor A and Factor B. If desired, select the Interaction (A X B) checkbox and set a Significance Level.

5. Select the preview icon .

## Linear Regression

### Simple Linear Regression

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'AirPassengers' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Linear Regression option, then Simple Regression.

3. Select a Dataset, Predictor (x), and Response (y).

4. Select the preview icon .

### Multiple Regression

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Linear Regression option, then Simple & Multiple Regression.

3. Select a Dataset, Response, and set up the Formula using the variables and the +, :, and * buttons. Here we regress MPG by HP (Horsepower) and WT (Weight).

4. To add additional output to the report, open the Details menu at the top of the Rguroo window. Select the Model Estimates and Diagnostics Graphs tab. Drag-and-drop or use the arrows to move the desired tables and graphs to the right-hand box labelled Selected, these will be included in the report.

• Correlation Coefficient: select Data Correlation

• Coefficient of Determination: select (Adjusted) R-Squared, note this is included by default.

• Confidence intervals for Slope and y-intercept: select Parameter Confidence Interval

5. Select the preview icon .

### Regression Prediction Intervals

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'AirPassengers' dataset found in the 'R datasets' repository.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Linear Regression option, then Simple & Multiple Regression..

3. Select a Dataset, Response, and set up the Formula using the variables and , , and buttons. Here we regress the number of airline passengers by time.

4. Open the Details menu on the top of the Rguroo window and select the Fitted Values, Predictions and Interval Estimates tab. Here, move Prediction Interval to the Selected box using drag-and-drop or the menu arrows.

• #### Using Internal Data:

• Internal data refers to observations that are used to train the model. Any rows with a numeric value assigned to the response variable are treated as internal data.

• Check the checkbox for Internal Data to output intervals for the dataset used to create the regression model

• #### Using External Data:

• External data refers to observations that are not used to train the model. Any rows with the response set to NA is treated as external data.

• Check the checkbox for External Data to obtain intervals for unseen data.

5. Select the preview icon .

## Chi-Square Tests

### Test of Independence (Association)

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'Cowles' dataset found in the 'car' repository.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Contingency Table option.

3. Select a Dataset, Factor 1 and Factor 2 variables.

4. Check the Chi-Square checkbox (with graph, if desired) under the Test of Independence section. Set the Significance Level.

5. Select the preview icon .

## Tabluation Methods: Frequency Distribution

### Qualitative Frequency Distribution

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Tabulation option.

3. Select a Dataset.

4. Select Add Table and rename the table, if desired.

5. Select a Factor 1 variable. Adjust the other options appropriately.

6. Select the preview icon .

### Quantitative Frequency Distribution

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Data toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Functions dropdown menu and choose the Transform option.

3. Select a Dataset.

4. Use the green plus button to add a new variable, give it a name. Because we want a count of grouped continuous data, we use the cut function to define the groups, e.g., cut(variable, breaks = seq(from, to, by)).

5. Select the preview icon .

6. Use the Save As at the top of the Rguroo window to save the modified dataset under a new name.

7. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the = Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Tabulation option.

8. Select a Dataset.

9. Select Add Table and rename the table, if desired.

10. Select a Factor 1 variable. Adjust the other options appropriately.

11. Select the preview icon .

## Counting

### Combination

1. Open the Applets toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the to expand the Calculators (Desmos) option and choose the Scientific Calculator.

2. Select the func option to open the functions menu of the calculator.

3. Select nCr and enter the two required parameters separated by a comma, as in $nCr\left(n,r\right)$, where $n=\text{the number of unique objects}$ and $r=\text{the number selected at a time}$.

### Factorial

1. Open the Applets toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the to expand the Calculators (Desmos) option and choose the Scientific Calculator.

2. Select the func option to open the functions menu of the calculator.

3. Enter the desired number and select !.

### Permutation

1. Open the Applets toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the to expand the Calculators (Desmos) option and choose the Scientific Calculator.

2. Select the func option to open the functions menu of the calculator.

3. Select nPr and enter the two required parameters separated by a comma, as in $nPr\left(n,r\right)$, where $n=\text{the number of unique objects}$ and $r=\text{the number of objects selected at a time}$.

## Confidence Intervals: Proportions

### One Sample Proportion: z-Interval

1. #### Using raw data:

See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'Cowles' dataset found in the 'car' repository.

#### Using summary statistics:

Continue to Step 2.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Proportion Inference then select the One Population option.

3. #### Using raw data:

Select a Dataset, Factor variable and Success level. The summary statistics will be automatically populated.

#### Using summary statistics:

• Assign a Factor Label and Success Label.

• Enter a Sample Size and # of Succ.

4. Under the Confidence Interval section, set the Confidence Level and select the checkboxes for Binomial (Exact) and Large Sample z.

5. Select the preview icon .

### Two Sample Proportions: z-Interval

1. See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Proportion Inference option, then select the Two Populations option.

3. #### Using raw data:

• Select a Dataset. Under the Response/Success section, select a Response variable with a Success level.

• Under the Population section, select a Population variable.

• Open the Data Summary tab. Select a level for Population 1 and Population 2. These will be one of the levels from the Population variable. In this example, 'Domestic' is selected as Population 1 and 'Import' as Population 2. The summary statistics will be automatically populated.

#### Using summary statistics:

• Assign a Response Label, Success Label, and Population Label.

• Under the Data Summary tab enter the following for Populations 1 and 2: Label, Sample Size and # of Successes.

4. Open the Confidence Interval tab. Set a Confidence Level and check the Large Sample z checkbox.

5. Select the preview icon .

## Confidence Intervals: Mean Inference

### One Sample t-Interval

1. #### Using raw data:

See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'LA CountyOzoneRandom' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

#### Using summary statistics:

Continue to Step 2.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Mean Inference option, then select the One & Two Population option.

3. #### Using raw data:

Select a Dataset and Variable 1. The summary statistics in the Summary tab will be automatically populated.

#### Using summary statistics:

Under the Summary tab enter the following for Population 1: Label, Sample Mean, Sample Size and at least one of Sample S.d. or Pop S.d..

4. Open the Population 1 tab, then open the Confidence Interval tab. Set the Confidence Level, and select the t-statistic checkbox.

5. Select the preview icon .

### One Sample z-Interval

1. #### Using raw data:

See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'LA CountyOzoneRandom' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

#### Using summary statistics:

Continue to Step 2.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Mean Inference option, then select the One & Two Population option.

3. #### Using raw data:

Select a Dataset and Variable 1. The summary statistics in the Summary tab will be automatically populated.

#### Using summary statistics:

Under the Summary tab enter the following for Population 1: Label, Sample Mean, Sample Size and at least one of Sample S.d. or Pop S.d..

4. Open the Population 1 tab, then open the Confidence Interval tab. Set the Confidence Level and select the z-statistic checkbox.

5. Select the preview icon .

### Two Sample z-Interval

1. #### Using raw data:

See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'LA CountyOzoneRandom' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

#### Using summary statistics:

Continue to step 2.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Mean Inference option, then select the One & Two Population option.

3. #### Using raw data:

Select a Dataset, Variable 1, and Variable 2. The summary statistics in the Summary tab will be automatically populated.

#### Using summary statistics:

Under the Summary tab enter the following for Populations 1 and 2: Label, Sample Mean, Sample Size and at least one of Sample S.d. or Pop S.d..

4. Open the Population 1-2 tab, then open the Confidence Interval tab. Set the Confidence Level and select the z-statistic checkbox.

5. Select the preview icon .

### Two Sample t-Interval (Independent Samples)

1. #### Using raw data:

See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'LA CountyOzoneRandom' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

#### Using summary statistics:

Continue to step 2.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Mean Inference option, then select the One & Two Population option.

3. #### Using raw data:

Select a Dataset, Variable 1, and Variable 2. The summary statistics in the Summary tab will be automatically populated.

#### Using summary statistics:

Under the Summary tab enter the following for Populations 1 and 2: Label, Sample Mean, Sample Size and at least one of Sample S.d. or Pop S.d..

4. Open the Population 1-2 tab and select the appropriate choices in the Assumptions section.

5. Open the Confidence Interval tab. Set the Confidence Level and select the t-statistic checkbox.

6. Select the preview icon .

### Two Sample t-Interval (Dependent Samples, Paired Difference)

1. #### Using raw data:

See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'immer' dataset found in the 'MASS' repository. In this example, we use the variables 'Y1' and 'Y2'.

#### Using summary statistics:

Continue to step 2.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Mean Inference option, then select the One & Two Population option.

3. #### Using raw data:

Select a Dataset, Variable 1, and Variable 2. The summary statistics in the Summary tab will be automatically populated.

#### Using summary statistics:

Under the Summary tab enter the following for Populations 1 and 2: Label, Sample Mean, Sample Size and at least one of Sample S.d. or Pop S.d..

4. Open the Population 1-2 tab, then open the Paired Data checkbox under the Assumption section.

5. Open the Confidence Interval tab. Set a Confidence Level and select the t-statistic checkbox.

6. Select the preview icon .

## Hypothesis Testing: Proportions

### One Proportion z-Test

1. #### Using raw data:

See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'Cowles' dataset found in the 'car' repository.

#### Using summary statistics:

Continue to Step 2.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Proportion Inference option, then select the One Population option.

3. #### Using raw data:

Select a Dataset and Factor variable and Success level. The summary statistics will be automatically populated.

#### Using summary statistics:

Assign a Factor Label and Success Label. Enter a Sample Size and # of Succ.

4. Under the Test of Hypothesis section, set a Significance Level, set an Alternative p., and select the checkbox for Large Sample z (p = p0).

5. Select the preview icon .

### Two Proportion z-Test

1. #### Using raw data:

See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'cardata' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

#### Using summary statistics:

Continue to Step 2.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Proportion Inference then select the Two Populations option.

3. #### Using raw data:

• Select a Dataset. Under the Response/Success section, select a Response variable with a Success level.

• Under the Population section, select a Population variable.

• Open the Data Summary tab. Select a level for Population 1 and Population 2. These will be one of the levels from the Population variable. In this example, 'Domestic' is selected as Population 1 and 'Import' as Population 2. The summary statistics will be automatically populated.

#### Using summary statistics:

• Assign a Response Label, Success Label, and Population Label.

• Under the Data Summary tab enter the following for Populations 1 and 2: Label, Sample Size and # of Successes.

4. Open the Test of Hypothesis tab. Set a Significance Level, set an Alt. Hypothesis p1 - p2, and check the Large Sample z checkbox.

5. Select the preview icon .

## Hypothesis Testing: Mean Inference

### One Sample z-Test

1. #### Using raw data:

See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'LA CountyOzoneRandom' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

#### Using summary statistics:

Continue to Step 2.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Mean Inference option, then select the One & Two Population option.

3. #### Using raw data:

Select a Dataset and Variable 1. The summary statistics in the Summary tab will be automatically populated.

#### Using summary statistics:

Under the Summary tab enter the following for Population 1: Label, Sample Mean, Sample Size and at least one of Sample S.d. or Pop S.d..

4. Open the Population 1 tab, then open the Test of Hypothesis tab. Set a Significance Level, set an Alternative hyp. 𝞵, and select the z-statistic checkbox.

5. Select the preview icon .

### One Sample t-Test

1. #### Using raw data:

See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'LA CountyOzoneRandom' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

#### Using summary statistics:

Continue to Step 2.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Mean Inference option, then select the One & Two Population option.

3. #### Using raw data:

Select a Dataset and Variable 1. The summary statistics in the Summary tab will be automatically populated.

#### Using summary statistics:

Under the Summary tab enter the following for Population 1: Label, Sample Mean, Sample Size and at least one of Sample S.d. or Pop S.d..

4. Open the Population 1 tab, then open the Test of Hypothesis tab. Set a Significance Level, and set an Alternative hyp.𝞵, and select the t-statistic checkbox.

5. Select the preview icon .

### Two Sample z-Test

1. #### Using raw data:

See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'LA CountyOzoneRandom' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

#### Using summary statistics:

Continue to step 2.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Mean Inference option, then select the One & Two Population option.

3. #### Using raw data:

Select a Dataset, Variable 1, and Variable 2. The summary statistics in the Summary tab will be automatically populated.

#### Using summary statistics:

Under the Summary tab enter the following for Populations 1 and 2: Label, Sample Mean, Sample Size and at least one of Sample S.d. or Pop S.d..

4. Open the Population 1-2 tab, and select the appropriate choices in the Assumptions section.

5. Open the Test of Hypothesis tab. Set a Significance Level, set an Alternative hyp. μ1μ2, and select the z-statistic checkbox.

6. Select the preview icon .

### Two Sample t-Test (Dependent Samples, Paired Difference)

1. #### Using raw data:

See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'immer' dataset found in the 'MASS' repository. In this example, we use the variables 'Y1' and 'Y2'.

#### Using summary statistics:

Continue to step 2.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Mean Inference option, then select the One & Two Population option.

3. #### Using raw data:

Select a Dataset, Variable 1, and Variable 2. The summary statistics in the Summary tab will be automatically populated.

#### Using summary statistics:

Under the Summary tab enter the following for Populations 1 and 2: Label, Sample Mean, Sample Size and at least one of Sample S.d. or Pop S.d..

4. Open the Population 1-2 tab and select the Paired Data checkbox under the Assumption section.

5. Open the Test of Hypothesis tab. Set a Significance Level, set an Alternative hyp. μd, and check the t-statistic checkbox. (By default, the z-statistic is selected, uncheck the z-statistic checkbox if only a t-statistic is desired.)

6. Select the preview icon .

### Two Sample t-Test (Independent Samples)

1. #### Using raw data:

See Creating a Data Frame to input your data or recreate the example below by Accessing the Rguroo Data Repository and using the 'LA CountyOzoneRandom' dataset found in the 'Rguroo Users Guide' repository.

#### Using summary statistics:

Continue to step 2.

2. Open the Analytics toolbox on the left-hand side of the Rguroo window. Use the Analysis dropdown menu and choose the Mean Inference option, then select the One & Two Population option.

3. #### Using raw data:

Select a Dataset, Variable 1, and Variable 2. The summary statistics in the Summary tab will be automatically populated

#### Using summary statistics:

Under the Summary tab enter the following for Populations 1 and 2: Label, Sample Mean, Sample Size and at least one of Sample S.d. or Pop S.d..

4. Open the Population 1-2 tab and select the appropriate choices in the Assumptions section.

5. Open the Test of Hypothesis tab. Set a Significance Level, set an Alternative hyp. μ1μ2, and select the t-statistic checkbox. (By default, the z-statistic is selected. Uncheck the z-statistic checkbox if only a t-statistic is desired.)

6. Select the preview icon .